osteoporosis adalah satu masalah dimana tulang kita menjadi reput. FAKTOR pemakanan adalah penting kerana ianya melewatkan atau membantu atau mempercepatkanaca struktur density tulang tadi...
Maka kita kena kaji balik dan fikirkan apa perlu ditolak dan apa perlu diambil dan ditambah didalam amalan hidup harian...
baca article diambil dari dm with many thanks..
:Boost your bones decade by decade...
By Annabel Venning
Our bones change as we age, and so do the ways we should look after them through the decades.
Diet and lifestyle in childhood can affect bone health in later life, determining the risk of developing joint disease such as arthritis and the thinning condition osteoporosis, while exercise is crucial in our later years.
Here, a spinal surgeon, a dietician and a rheumatologist from the Bone Health Centre at The Princess Grace Hospital in London give you all the guidance you need, whatever your age....
Frame game: perfectly poised Jerry Hall (centre) no doubt hands out valuable health and fitness advice to daughters Elizabeth Jagger (left) and Georgia May
Under ten years Bones provide body structure, protect organs, anchor muscles and store calcium, which is needed to aid the function of the nerves, muscles, kidneys and heart.
Childhood is a crucial time for skeletal health as bones are growing at their fastest.
'The body absorbs older bone and generates new bone material to keep our skeleton strong, but this process is most active in children and adolescents,' says Peter Hamlyn, consultant spinal surgeon.
'Calcium obtained from the diet - mainly dairy foods, but also wholegrains and dark green leafy vegetables - is needed to make bones hard.'
Children aged between one and three need 350mg calcium per day, and between age four and ten 450mg to 550mg. A medium yogurt provides 400mg and an average slice of bread 30mg. Up to the age of five, children should eat fullfat dairy products because they contain higher levels of fat for energy and fatsoluble Vitamins D and E.
Vitamin D, most plentifully produced in the skin after exposure to sunlight, aids calcium absorption.
'Without adequate levels, bones will not absorb enough calcium no matter how much is eaten,' says dietician Sarah Wilson. 'Breastfed babies will get sufficient amounts but while most formula milk is fortified, these infants should also be given drops containing Vitamin D as well as A and C. Speak to your GP for dose guidance.'
Rheumatologist Dr Gerard Hall says: 'Fear of exposing children to sunshine has led to a surge in rickets, the bone-softening disease. Once children can run around, they need 20 minutes of daily exposure to UV light during the summer without sunblock. Weight-bearing exercise - running and jumping - stimulates bone formation.'
TeensBones stop growing at the age of about 20 (although they will continue to increase in density after this) so it is essential to provide adequate nutrition to support new tissue formation during adolescence.
'Extreme dieting is a common problem among teenage girls, and some boys. Not only does a low body weight decrease bone density, but cutting out mineralrich dairy foods, often regarded as fatty, puts bones at greater risk of osteoporosis in later life,' says Wilson.
Boys need 1,000mg of calcium a day - equivalent to a pint of skimmed milk, an egg and two sardines. Girls need 800mg - a pint of skimmed milk and a small can of baked beans.
Protein is another major component of bone, and essential for growth. Teenagers need two or three moderate servings (chicken, meat, fish, pulses or tofu).
Drinking fizzy instead of more nourishing drinks can be bad for bones as we miss out on key nutrients.
Some think the acid in the added carbon dioxide enters the bloodstream and the body tries to neutralise it with calcium leached from the bones.
The 20s Final bone density is determined in this decade, but new-found independence means this is an age of excess for many, which may take a toll on skeletal health.
'Young adults need 700mg of calcium a day, and this requirement remains the same for the rest of life. Try to avoid salty convenience foods as they leach calcium from bones,' says Wilson.
'Two portions of oily fish a week top up Vitamin D levels.'
Too little sleep has also been shown to affect bone density. Those getting less than six hours each night are more likely to develop osteoporosis in later life.
This is because the body is not given adequate time to reduce the stress hormone cortisol in the bloodstream which promotes bone breakdown.
The 30s Breakdown of bone tissue overtakes growth, leading to a steady loss of density from this decade onwards. High stress levels and inactivity can exacerbate the deterioration.
'Excessive caffeine intake has been shown to compromise bone density. Have no more than five cups of coffee a day,' says Wilson.
'A packed lunch including a tinned salmon sandwich and a yogurt provides energy and contributes towards adequate levels of bonedensifying minerals.'
Pregnant women should ask their GP about supplements with Vitamins D and C and folic acid, which prevents spina bifida, a malformation of the foetal spine. However cod liver oil supplements are not recommended for pregnant women.
'Many pregnant mothers do not get enough calcium, which leads to the baby drawing what it needs from its mother, leaving her supplies depleted,' says Wilson.
Hall says: 'Jogging is renowned for its stress-busting effects, aiding bone-density retention, and there is no evidence that it promotes osteoarthritis.'
The 40s The amount of energy our bodies burn while resting drops by seven per cent, and by the same amount with every subsequent decade. Osteoarthritis - wear and tear of the joints, which affects two million British men and women - typically starts at this age, but can be prevented by making the right choices.
'Maintaining a healthy weight will also prevent future problems. A 10 lb weight gain can increase the risk of osteoarthritis of the knee by 40 per cent,' says Hall.
'If you are starting to suffer from joint pains, it is even more important that you take an omega3 supplement to dampen inflammation in the joints.
Other nutritional supplements, including glucosamine sulphate and chondroitin, may give some pain relief.
The 50s Women experience the menopause at this age, leading to a drop in the female hormone oestrogen, which is essential for bone retention.
Women should consider hormone replacement therapy, although a chemical that mimics oestrogen found in pulses and soya products may protect against joint and back pains.
'Drinking more than three units of alcohol a day - two small glasses of wine - can cause low bone density as the toxins in alcohol upset oestrogen and cortisol levels,' warns Dr Hall.
The body's ability to absorb minerals deteriorates by up to 25 per cent over the age of 60.
'Eating enough protein is also vital, especially for those recovering from jointreplacement surgery, because it helps tissue growth and repair,' says Wilson. 'Maintain a healthy weight, and that includes not losing too much as this will lead to low bone density and osteoporosis.'
Dr Hamlyn says: 'Keep using your muscles and bones to maintain them. Gentle walking or gardening helps you retain mobility. Anyone with a family history of osteoporosis, or who has broken a bone, should consider having a bonedensity scan after the age of 60.' :
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